Breast Cancer: Breast Examinations & Mammograms

90% of all breast cancer can be detected early using the triad of breast health: breast self-examination (BSE), an annual clinical breast examination by a health care provider, and mammography. Women and men should know how their breasts normally look and feel and report any breast change promptly to their health care provider.

Discuss the best screening schedule for you with your healthcare provider, based on your family history, personal history and values. See the chart at the end of this section for general screening recommendations.

Cancer Screenings for Early Detection

The recommendations for cancer screenings are continually changing with new research. In the midst of these changes, not too surprisingly, people disagree on the recommendations. The best thing you can do is establish a relationship with a health care provider, who can take the time to get to know you, your medical history and your family’s medical history. Together, you can decide on a schedule of cancer screenings which are right for you. This chart has been compiled as a guideline for the discussion but may not be appropriate if you are at higher risk of cancer because of your lifestyle (such as smoking) or personal or family history.



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Coordinated Approach to Child Health, is a nation-wide evidence based program for pre-school, elementary and middle school aged children. Parents, teachers and food service staff partner to maintain health through good food choices and physical activity.

Cervical Cancer Screenings

Paps & HPV Vaccine

Cervical cancer used to be the leading cause of cancer death for women in the U.S. The death rate has decreased dramatically, mainly as a result of Pap tests, which can find cervical pre-cancer before it turns into cancer. Almost all
cervical cancers are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), a common virus that can be passed from one person to another during sex. HPV usually causes no symptoms and in most cases goes away on its own. Some types of HPV, however, can cause changes on a woman’s cervix that can lead to cervical cancer over time, while other types can cause genital warts. In addition to HPV, other things can increase your risk of cervical cancer, including smoking, HIV, using birth control pills for five or more years and having given birth to three or more children.

HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Vaccine
There are approximately 40 types of genital HPV. HPV vaccine is an inactivated (not live) vaccine which protects against four major types of HPV, including two types that cause about 70% of cervical cancer and two types that cause about 90% of genital warts. The HPV vaccine does not appear to cause any serious side effects. Tell your provider if you have any severe allergies, especially yeast, or if you are pregnant. The vaccine appears to be safe for both the mother & unborn baby, but it is still being studied. Any woman who learns that she was pregnant when she got the HPV vaccine is encouraged to call the HPV Vaccine in Pregnancy Registry at 1-(800)-986-8999.

Pap Smears and HPV Testing
The Pap Smear test is a simple procedure in which cells are taken from a woman’s cervix and vagina and examined under a microscope. The Pap test can pick up changes in cells before they turn cancerous. Discuss the best screening schedule for you with your healthcare provider, based on your family history, personal history and values. See the chart at the end of this section for general screening recommendations. HPV Vaccines are available at most Health Care Providers. See the Hospitals and Health Facilities Section.

Chronic Disease Prevention: Diabetes, Heart Disease and Stroke

There’s a big link between diabetes, heart disease, and stroke. In fact, two out of three people with diabetes die from heart disease or stroke, also called cardiovascular disease. Clogged blood vessels can lead to heart attack, stroke, and other problems. You can lower your risk of all of these conditions if you:

• Don’t smoke (see Tobacco below)
• Are physically active and maintain a healthy weight (see the next section)
• Watch, control & improve the Healthy ABCs:

A is for A1C. Your A1C check, which also may be reported as estimated average glucose (eAG), tells you your average blood glucose for the past two to three months. Goal: 4.5 – 5.6 B is for blood pressure. High blood pressure makes your heart work harder than it should. Goal: <120/<80 C is for cholesterol. Your cholesterol numbers tell you about the amount of fat in your blood. Some kinds, like HDL cholesterol, help protect your heart. Others, like LDL cholesterol, can clog your arteries. High triglycerides raise your risk for a heart attack or a stroke. Goal: <200 total cholesterol. Some programs that help address all of these factors: